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Sucumbíos province has a privileged location along the Amazon basin and it hosts several natural enclaves where thousands of plant and animal species live, as well as millions of microorganisms. In addition to being famous because of its biodiversity, Sucumbios is also home to magnificent rivers, lagoons, waterfalls and unspoiled plains that are actually set in the Andean area. The capital of this province is Nueva Loja, where an Ecological Park and the Museo de la Energía are found.

This province has been acknowledged by the Ecuadorian State as a territory with extensive protected areas, among which the reserve of Cuyabeno, Limoncocha and part of the Reserva Ecológica Cayambe-Coca are noteworthy.

The 650 000 hectares encompassed by the Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno are inhabited by hundreds of bird species, some of them considered to be endangered, as well as by wild and aquatic animals, including a large number of caimans. On the other hand, Limoncocha is famous for its primary and secondary forests, the 350 kinds of birds living there and the reptiles and mammals found in this area, which is the natural habitat of the black caiman.

The Zona Intangible de Conservación Cuyabeno-Imuya is also particularly important because of its large tropical lagoon complex, in addition to the many swamps and wetlands found here that are inhabited by the Siona Community. The latter is known for having wise and skillful artisans that make feather and straw pieces, as well as hammocks, jewels with seeds and pottery. The water and land enclaves of Cuyabeno are inhabited by different species like sweet water dolphins, river turtles, caimans, monkeys, sloths and birds such as the hoatzins, toucans and guacamayos. Endemic jungle species found here include bromeliads, ceibos, heliconias, wild roses and orchids.

The Cofanes, an ethnic group that is quite important in Ecuador, live in Sucumbios and offer visitors the opportunity of being guided across the jungle from Dureno all the way to Tarapoa. The National Park Sumaco, considered to be a UNESCO Biosphere  Reserve, is another unique spot where travellers can tapires and guanguanas, and where it is also possible to find chonta plants and chambira, used to make shigras and hammocks.